Sunday, March 22, 2020
Night By Elie Weisel Life is easier to take than you'd think; all that is necessary is to accept the impossible, do without the indispensable, and bear the intolerable. This quote was said by Kathleen Norris. I think that I agree with the quote, and also that the quote was not being sarcastic. One example of this quote being true is in the book Night by Elie Weisel. When the Nazi powers began to take over the country Elie and his family didn't accept the impossible. They thought they if they stayed where they were, that the whole thing would blow over. But they were wrong. His family are sent to a concentration camp. He and his father are separated from his family, and then they are forced to do series of tests in which the is inhumane in regular society. These tests included, getting shaved, getting doused with gasoline, and staying out in the cold for hours with no clothes on. They had to bear the intolerable. Another example of the quote was the move Max and Helen. They, just as the Weisel family, refused to accept the impossible and evacuate their homes before it was too late. In this movie, however, Max, Helen, and, Helen's sister were separated from their parents and sent to a quarry where they had to work. They had to work very hard and were beaten, and they had to bear the intolerable . If these families would've lived by the quote by Kathleen Norris, they could have saved themselves from much suffering and agony. If you can accept the impossible, you can just live without worrying about what's going to happen. And if you can bear the intolerable, you can get through the tough times, and live for the good. English Essays
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Ensayo Sobre Etica Essays Ensayo Sobre Etica Essay Ensayo Sobre Etica Essay Filosofia Etica Tirsa Perez Rodriguez Management MGT/521 1ro de mayo de 2010 Profesor: Harold Rivera Etica En el siguiente ensayo se presentan los valores y aspectos eticos de la estudiante luego de haber realizado el avaluo Ethics Awareness inventory(University of Phoenix, 2004). Luego considerara los valores de Kudler Fine Foods como empresa y se comparara con los mismos, explicando como los aspectos de su perfil etico afectarian su desempeno, en caso de ser gerente en dicha organizacion. La etica es un conjunto reglas o principios que guian la buena conducta (N.D.). De acuerdo a la profesion las personas deben aprender como realmente debe ser su conducta en su area de trabajo. El avaluo Ethics Awareness Inventory es una prueba para orientar a las personas que lo toman, sobre su filosofia etica; analizandolas en varias categorias como: caracter, equidad y resultados. Al realizar el avaluo la estudiante no se sintio comoda; no fue de su agrado tener que seleccionar, en muchas de las aseveraciones, las dos opciones requeridas (menos o mas) de cada una; entiende que la etica se compone de una integracion de todos los criterios y considera que se puede tener un balance y no estar exactamente alineado con un area especifica. Por esa razon realizo el assesment en dos ocasiones con el interes de conocer que resultados se acercarian mas a la realidad; tomando en cuenta que el avaluo Ã ¦es una descripcion general y puede que no se ajuste exactamente a ti (University of Phoenix, 2006). En la primera ejecucion de la prueba, la estudiante obtuvo una puntuacion que la describio con un perfil mas alineado con los resultados. Se explica que desde esa perspectiva, la persona se basa en los consecuencias de sus actos y en promover lo mejor para la mayoria. Al realizar la prueba, nuevamente, obtuvo un perfil etico mas alineado con su caracter y menos con equidad. Este perfil la describe como una persona que le da mas importancia a su caracter, considerando la integridad y rectitud muy importantes; incluye cualidades como honestidad y sabiduria (University of Phoenix, 2006). Luego de haber analizado ambos resultados, la estudiante entiende que en su trabajo presenta un balance de los dos. Es muy recta en su area de trabajo y le gusta ir a la par con las reglas establecidas y la etica, a la vez que puede presentar flexibilidad al tratarse del bien comun. Al analizar la organizacion Kudler Fine Foods, la estudiante puede apreciar que Kathy, la presidenta, contribuye al bien comun cuando dona sus alimentos menos frescos a personas que lo necesitan ( Apollo Group, Inc., 2003). Tambien podemos apreciar sus valores considerando su honestidad, al reconocer que el salario de sus empleados no es el mejor y los recompensa con comida. Kathy muestra su integridad y rectitud al estar presente en cada una de sus tiendas la mayoria del tiempo y su sabiduria al estar al dia con lo que esta vigente en el mercado y nuevas estrategias.( Apollo Group, Inc., 2003). De la estudiante ser la gerente en kudler Fine Foods, su valor de rectitud podria ayudar la organizacion en mantener sus valores y promover la honestidad entre los empleados La gente puede ser termometros o termostatos. Van a reflejar el clima alrededor de ellos, o lo estableceran. Los lideres desarrollan valores y principios para aplicarlos a su vida y trazan el camino para otros (Elmore, 2008, pag.13). La inclinacion de la estudiante de lo que se debe ser y su integridad ante todo, mejoraria la situacion en el area de Recursos Humanos y las tareas que realiza Kathy serian distribuidas a las personas que se supone que las realicen; el enfoque en resultados de la misma manera seria efectivo pues de acuerdo a como los empleados realicen las funciones les continuaria dando confianza y valor por su trabajo realizado Estar facultado significa que uno tiene libertad para actuar; tambien significa que uno es responsable por los resultados(Blanchard, Carlos Randolph, 2005). La inteligencia ayudaria a concienzar sobre la necesidad de delegar en las demas personas como estrategia para poder crecer y expandirse como negocio, abriendo nuevas tiendas en diferentes lugares estrategicos. La estudiante, luego de analizar la filosofia etica que mejor la describe en su desempeno en el area de trabajo y como la aplicaria a la organizacion Kudler Fine Foods, entiende que algunas de las caracteristicas no ayudarian en su funcion como gerente. Pudo aprender que no solo puede enfocarse en como todo debe funcionar de acuerdo a su vision de valores, pues no todas las personas se rigen por los mismos valores; entiende que el caracter de un lider puede llevar una organizacion al exito o a la derrotaThe iceberg represents your leadership. The 10% above the water is your skill. The 90% bellow the water is your character. ItÃ¢â ¢s whatÃ¢â ¢s below the surface that sinks the ship(Elmore, 2008). Comprendio que es necesario ser flexible, en cuanto a rectitud, pues se debe atender la situacion por su particularidad; no en todo lo que ocurre se debe enfrentar con la misma estrategia. El realizar el avaluo y escribir este ensayo reflexivo sirvio de crecimiento para la estudiante, pues aunque entiende que presenta un balance en su filosofia etica, tambien se hizo consciente de que es muy estricta con las reglas en su area laboral y esto puede perjudicar el desempeno del empleado y como se da la empatia con el mismo. Entiende que es necesario considerar diferentes estrategias que permita que la organizacion realice sus metas; comprendio tambien la importancia del caracter al hablar sobre etica y como esta cualidad ayuda a fomentar ese tipo de comportamiento pues un lider no construye su caracter sin cruzar el puente de la disciplina. La disciplina personal es como un puente que cruza desde donde estas hacia lo que quisieras ser. Te lleva a donde quieres estar(Elmore, 2008). Un buen lider debe actuar con disciplina y demostrar su caracter para influenciar a sus empleados a ser eficientes en su trabajo y lograr asi el comportamiento etico y el exito de la organizac ion la influencia es la esencia del liderazgo, y los lideres poderosos pueden tener un impacto substancial en las vidas de sus seguidores y el destino de una organizacion( Yukl, 2006). Referencias Blanchard K., Carlos J. Randolph A. (2005). Empowerment. Grupo Editorial Norma. Colombia Elmore T. (2008). Habitudes: Images that Form Laedership Habits Attitudes. N.D. Ethics. Recuperado de X Refer XML Database. University of Phoenix(2003). Kudler Fine Foods[ Plan Estrategico]. Extraido de: https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/ic/classroom.aspx Yukl G.(2006). Leadership in Organizations(6ta ed.) Extraido de University of Phoenix ebook Collection Database. MGT/521. Extraido el 1ro de mayo de 2010.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Create my own exam - Math Problem Example A line passing through the centre of a circle is the diameter of the circle (Mosteller 109). If two or more diameters are in the same circle then all of them are equal in length irrespective of their position. Therefore, if the two sides from both triangles that pass through the middle of the circle were taken as o for Triangle A and x for triangle B, then o will be equal to x. The side will also be the longest on either triangle. In the equation o + p + q = x + y + z we can eliminate o and x since they cancel each other keeping in mind that o = x, hence we will be left to prove that p + q = y + z. To prove this we will first have to identify the angles formed by the two triangles. If triangle A has angles O, P, Q where angle P and Q join sides p and q to side o respectively, then angle O is opposite to side o. On the other hand, triangle B has angles X, Y, Z where by angle X is opposite to side x and angles Y and Z join sides y and z to side x respectively. If we start with both tri angles as isosceles triangles then sides p + q = y + z because for both triangles the longer side is equal (Kac and Ulam 167). In the event that the shape of either triangle changes then the following, changes will also take place. Let us start with triangle A, a change in the shape of the triangle from an isosceles triangle an irregular triangle this will cause angle O to increase. The change will also be associated with change in length of side p and q, where with every increase in side p side q will be subsequently decreasing and vice versa. The total length of the two sides will be maintained that is p + q for all the changes will remain the same. In triangle B the same principle will also apply such that a change in the shape of the triangle from an isosceles triangle to an irregular triangle then angle X will be increasing and an increase in side y will lead to a decrease in side z and vice versa. The total length in this case will be maintained that is to say that y + z will remain the same in whichever shape the triangle changes. Since p + q = y + z for the isosceles triangle then the same principle will apply for a change in shape of the triangles. Theorem 2 If a rectangle is drawn inside a chessboard with its sides parallel to the sides of the chessboard, then the number of complete dark squares will NOT be equal to the number of light squares covered by the rectangle. That is if the rectangle covers m complete dark squares and n complete light squares then m ? n. Taking note that not necessarily that all the squares covered by the rectangle will be complete. Proof: Suppose we take a chessboard (which is square in shape) with sides C and D where C = D and inside the chessboard there are Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ equal squares, which are made of one unit of each side, therefore n = C ? D (Garder 510). The dark squares are denoted by b and the light squares denoted as w. A rectangle with length J and width K is drawn inside the chessboard where the side J is pa rallel to C and K is parallel to D. Further, J should not be equal to C and K should not be equal to D, meaning the rectangle is smaller than the chessboard and there should be no three sides of the rectangle touching the sides of the chessboard. If the rectangle is drawn to fit exactly two units of C and one unit of D then the rectangle will
Monday, February 3, 2020
First assist surgical - Case Study Example It involves cutting the linking parts and then conducting a usual vaginal surgery to take away specimen from the body. 1. Organ Structure function: The ovaries are two glands that are a constituent of the female reproductive system and are responsible for production of ova. Each of them is oval in shape and almost equal to the almond in size. They are found near the fallopian tubes in the tangential wall of the pelvis in an enclosure referred to as ovarian fossa. Each of the ovaries is connected to the fimbria of the fallopian tube. Three incisions will be made. These can be seen by the patient. The first one is to accommodate the telescope and is within or close to the navel. The other cuts are done in the lower part of the abdomen. These are 5mm long while the first is 1 cm in length (Petri et al. 170). Another slit is done at the top of the vagina to remove the needed material for analysis. The patient will wake up in the recovery room after the procedure and after the effects of the anaesthetic diminish. Some patients might require an oxygen mask to assist in the inhalation of oxygen ((Querleu, Leblanc and Castelain 580). Lukanovic, A; Drazic, K (2010). "Risk factors for vaginal prolapse after hysterectomy". International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 110 (1): 27Ã¢â¬â30. Petri NahÃ ¡s, E.; Pontes, A.; Nahas-Neto, J.; Borges, V.; Dias, R.; Traiman, P. (2005). "Effect of total abdominal hysterectomy on ovarian blood supply in women of reproductive age". Journal of ultrasound in medicineÃ : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 24 (2):
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Audit Risk Model Accounting Essay The Audit Risk Model (ARM) is defined as: Inherent Risk is the auditors measure of assessing whether material misstatements exist in the financial statement before considering of internal controls. Ignoring internal controls, if the auditor assesses that the likelihood of material errors is high, the auditor will assume that the Inherent Risk is high. As the Control Risk constitutes a separate component of the Audit Risk Model, it is ignored here.Ã Control Risk is the auditors measure of assessing the likelihood that the clients internal control system is unable to prevent or detect material misstatements exceeding a tolerable level. In assessing the level of the Control Risk, the auditor will assess the effectiveness of the firms internal control system during his audit, e.g. through questionnaires. The lower the effectiveness of internal controls the greater the frequency of error. Detection Risk is the auditors measure of assessing the likelihood that the auditorÃ wont detect material misstatements. Auditors will carry out more audit work to increase the detection rate ifÃ Internal Risk and Control Risk are too high in order to meet the Audit Risk target. When applying the Audit Risk Model, the auditor has to determine a target level of Audit Risk that is in accordance with providing reasonable assurance. The Internal Risk and Control Risk can be pooled together as Occurrence Risk (OR), i.e. the risk of the existence ofÃ misstatements before the actual audit. The Detection Risk on the other hand is the risk of the existence of misstatements during the actual audit. The first step in applying the Audit RiskÃ Model is to determine a tolerable level of Audit Risk. In the next step the Audit Risk is decomposed into its three components. The auditor has no control over the Internal Risk and Control Risk but must assess their levels in order to determine the level of Detection Risk that is sufficient to achieve the target Audit Risk. The Detection Risk can be influenced by the extent of testing. Applying the formula of the Audit Risk Model, the auditor will need to perform more testing, that is collect more evidence, and thus reduce the Detection Risk, in case the level of Internal Risk and/or Control Risk is high in order to achieve (maintain) the target. The Detection RiskÃ can be influenced by the nature, timing, and extent of the audit procedures. 2. One of the components of the audit risk model is inherent risk. Describe typical factors that auditors evaluate assessing inherent risk. With the benefit of hindsight, what inherent risk factors were present during the audits of the 1989 through 1992 Comptronix financial statements? Internal Risk is the auditors measure of assessing whether material misstatements exist in the financial statement before considering the effectiveness of internal controls. Besides factors related to the peculiar assertion, the auditor needs to take external circumstances into account that might influence the Internal Risk. Those can comprise the nature of business and industry, the integrity of management, the size of account balances, the existence of relatedÃ parties, the lack of sufficient working capital to continue operations, etc. Taking into account those numerous factors, professional judgment has to be applied by the auditor. Examples of accounts that pose low Internal Risk comprise traded securities or fixed assets in contrast to accounts with high Internal Risk such as those for which estimates have toÃ be used or complex calculation have to be conducted. With hindsight the following inherent risk factors were present: Fictitious purchases of equipment An audit that would have included a physical inspection of Comptronixs equipment might have revealed that certain recognized assets do not exist orÃ that considering the age of and thus the depreciation for the equipment that certain pieces ofÃ equipment are not worth their book values. Fictitious accounts payments for the equipment Besides auditing in a manner that would have revealed the nonexistence of certain purchases of equipment the auditors could have also audited check records and bank statements to see where and by whom the checks were cashed in. This would have revealed that the checks were never cashed in by a third, outside party, but were cashed internally. Fictitious sales and accounts receivables In the same manner as with the fictitious accounts for equipment, the auditor could have checked the inventory to verify the decrease in inventory of goods for sale as well as the payments by the customers. The former would have revealed the lack of sales while the latter would have revealed the lack of external customers for no outsideÃ party deposited money in Comptronixs account. Another approach would have comprised matching the sales with the order papers and invoices. Here the auditor would have realized that there are no records for the bogus sales and hence no sales were realized. 3. Another component of the audit risk model is control risk. Describe the five components of internal control. What characteristics of Comptronixs internal control increased control risk for the audits of the1989 1992 year-end financial statements? Control risk is an auditorsÃ ¶ assessment of the internal control systems of a company. This also includes the attitude and expertise directors and management have towards internal controls. IfÃ control risk is high then the amount of substantive procedures that have to be conducted increases accordingly. The internal control: Integrated Framework published 1994 by COSO breaks effective internal control into five interrelated components: control environment risk assessment control activities information and communication monitoring The control environment encompasses the internal control framework and is considered a foundation for all other elements. Included factors are integrity, ethical values, competence, managements philosophy, operating cycles, assignment of authority and the attention and direction provided by the board. Generally the control environment materializes in a written statement being the code of conduct. The risk assessment is best described as the means of identifying and analyzing internal and external risks to the achievement of financial reporting control objectives. Control activities are developed to address each control objective and to minimize risks identified. Information and communication from management to personnel must be clearly stated and should stress that control responsibilities must be taken seriously. The personnel must understand its role in the internal control system. Thus the company identifies methods and procedures by which right information is provided to the right people. Finally, monitoring is the process (internal or external) to evaluate the performance of the internal control system over time. At Comptronix various factors increased the control risk for the company. First, the loss of one of the major customers is a circumstance that increases control risk as management has an incentive to misstate earnings and other accounts to stay profitable. Second, the accounting system could be bypassed by management with factious manual entries. This increases control risk as it grants unlimited authority to top management for changing and manipulating accounts. Also cash disbursements could be approved by management based solely on an invoice. Finally the computerized accounting system in the shipping department, which constitutes a good internal control device, could be accessed and manipulated by the controller. In summary management had too much authority to enter and change the electronic accounting systems of the company, while there were no double checks in place to verify and control manual changes in the system. 4. The board of directors, and its audit committee, can be an effective corporate governance mechanism .a) Discuss the pros and cons of allowing inside directors to serve on the board. Describe typical responsibilities of audit committees. Inside directors on the board can facilitate its effectiveness by establishing strong connectionsÃ between the board and day to day business. However, inside directors can also comprise the independence of the board when it comes to personal interests. For example, the ability of theÃ board to set bonuses that are tied to performance and salaries of management is an important argument against inside directors. Another common topic in research is that adding insiders to the board of directors reduces board monitoring. On the other hand, a study by George Drymiotes shows that a less independent board, one that also looks after the agents interests to some degree, can sometimes fulfill its monitoring role more effectively than a board that is completely independent. A fully independent boards inability to commit to a specific level ofÃ monitoring effort makes monitoring ineffective. Having insiders as part of the board, however, shifts the boards interests closer to those of the a gent and mitigates the boards incentives to short-change the agent (Drymiotes, 2007). The paper also suggests that any other mechanisms that align the boards interests, to some extent, with those of the manager may be beneficial to organizations. For instance, board and management interests can become more aligned when management owns a portion of the firm. Giving management a share of the firm means that a group of shareholders is managing the firm. Importantly, this particular group of shareholders finds ex post monitoring desirable, the same way inside directors do. Thus, a board representing shareholder interests may have stronger incentives to monitor the agent ex post. The audit committees responsibilities can be summarized as assisting the board of directors in verifying: the integrity of the companys financial statements the independence, integrity, qualification and performance of the external auditors the performance of the companys internal audit functions the appropriateness of the internal control systems the monitoring of compliance with laws and regulatory requirements and the code of conduct b) What strengths or weaknesses were present related to Comptronixs board of directors and audit committee? First of all the CEO and COO of Comptronix represented management of the board which constitutes already for 28.6% of the board of directors. Despite the evidence above and considering that the managers engaged in fraud, the high percentage of inside directors on theÃ board is a considerable weakness. Moreover, the remaining five outside board directors, ratherÃ undermined than strengthened the boards independence: Two of them had close affiliations with management, the other maintained relations that were not that apparent at first glance, but nevertheless substantial. One, for example, was the partner in the venture capital firm that owned over 5% of Comptronix. Finally four annual board meetings seem to not have been sufficient to exert control over management. Concerning the audit committee it can be maintained that it was neither independent norÃ qualified. The committee members, two outside and one gray director, were drawn from theÃ board of directors which was already evaluated as not being independent. Furthermore, not any of the members had accounting or financial reporting backgrounds, therefore lacking crucial expertise and experience in their function as an audit committee. 5. Public Companies must file quarterly financial statements in Form 10-Qs, that have been reviewed by the companys external auditor. Briefly describe the key requirements ofÃ Auditing Standards (AU) Section 722, Interim Financial Information. Why wouldnt all companies (public and private) engage their auditors to perform timely reviews of interim financial statements? The SEC requires all public companies to have quarterly financial statements reviewed by the external auditor on a timely basis. SAS No. 71 provides guidance on the nature, timing, and extent of procedures to be applied by the independent accountant in conducting a review of interim financial information. The objective of a review ofÃ interim financial information is to determine whether material modifications should be made for such information to conform to GAAP. A review of interim financial information consists principally of inquiries and analytical procedures. It does not include (1) tests of accounting records, (2) the evaluation of corroborating evidential matter in response to inquiries, or (3) other normal procedures ordinarily performed during an audit. Thus, the accountant does not obtain reasonable assurance that would serve as the basis for an opinion on that financial information. In performing a review of interim financial information, the accountant needs to have sufficient knowledge of a clients internal control as it relates to the preparation ofÃ both interim and annual financial statements. That knowledge assists the accountant in identifying the likelihood of potential material misstatements in interim financial information and in selecting the inquiries and analytical procedures that will provide the accountant a basis for reporting whether material modifications should be made to the interim financial information in order for it to conform to GAAP. Non-public companies are not required to engage independent accountants toÃ perform a review of interim financial statements. Thus, a private companys decision to engage an independent accountant to conduct a review of interim financial information is a cost-benefit decision. The services associated with obtaining such a review require time and money. If top executives and the board of directors do not believe the relatedÃ benefits exceed the costs, then they are not likely to engage independent accountants. The guidance in SAS No. 71 applies to interim financial information that is included in a note to the audited financial statements of a non-public company. If the interim financial Information for the non-public company is presented in a separate complete set of interim financial statements, the accountant should comply with the AICPAs Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services. Recently, there has been increased attention on interim reviews because of alleged financial reporting fraud involving interim financial statements. The SEC requirement for timely interim reviews for public companies was sparked by the February 1999Ã Report and Recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving theÃ Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees (The Blue Ribbon Report). That report included a recommendation that the SEC require a reporting companys outside auditor to conduct a SAS No. 71 interim review prior to the companys filing of its Form 10-Q with the SEC. According to the Blue Ribbon Panels report, the Ã ³increased involvement by the outside auditors and the audit committee in the interim financial reporting process should result in more accurate interim reporting. 7. Provide a brief summary of each of the three fraud conditions. Additionally, provide anexample from the Comptronix fraud of each of the three fraud conditions. 1) I ncentive or pressure to perpetrate fraud Ã ± Bonus for superb performance. Company awardstock incentive to key employees2) An opportunity to carry out the fraud Ã ± Executive positions that may bypass existing accountsystem. I nternal controls are insufficient. Board of directors composes of mostly internaldirectors and acquaintances.3) Attitude or rationalization to justify the fraudulent action. Ã ± helped company avoidingreporting net losses. 8. Auditing Standards (AU) Section 3 16, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial StatementAudit, notes that there is a possibility that management override of controls could occur inevery audit and accordingly, the auditor should include audit procedures in every audit toaddress that risk.a) What do you think is meant by the term Ã ³management overrideÃ ´? Management override can be defined as the possibility for management to circumvent internalcontrols that appear to work efficiently, in order to manipulate accounting records and preparing fraudulent financial statements directly or indirectly. As the internal control system is expectedto function properly, the ways in which management can override controls are unpredictable. b) Provide two examples of where management override of controls occurred in theComptronix fraud The executives were able to bypass the existing accounting system. They could record fictitiousÃ journal entries of sales and purchases manually inventing some customer order numbers andquantities that did not exist and obviously were not cross-checked with other internal systems,like the customer order- or inventory system.Ã Next to that it was possible to record fictitious purchases of equipment without creating thenecessary documents accompanying such purchases. The internal control failed to detect thisirregularity.Another example is the possibility of overriding control systems over cash disbursements. With afictitious vendor invoice it was possible to make an accountant payable clerk prepare a checkÃ without the necessity to crosscheck whether the delivery of the goods actually took place or anorder number generated by the vendor existed that should have been found on the invoice laterÃ on. c) Research AU Section 3 16 to identify the three required auditor responses to furtheraddress the risk of management override of internal controls Paragraphs 58 Ã ± 67 in Section 316 of the Auditing Standards by the PCAOB describe proceduresthat should be performed to further address the risk of management override of controls. Thethree main responses that should be undertaken by the auditor are as follows:1. Examining journal entries and other adjustments for evidence of possible materialmisstatement due to fraud.Material misstatements due to fraud mostly occur by:a. recording inappropriate or unauthorized journal entries throughout the year or at periodend orÃ Ã b. making adjustments to amounts reported in the financial statements that are not reflectedin formal journal entries due to consolidating adjustments, report combinations andreclassifications.Therefore, the auditor should test the appropriateness of journal entries recorded in the generalledger and other adjustments. I n particular, the auditor should:Ã ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Obtain an understanding of the entitys financial reporting process and the controls overÃ Ã journal entries and other adjustments Ã ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ I dentify and select journal entries and other adjustments for testingÃ ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Determine the timing of the testingÃ ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ I nquire of individuals involved in the financial reporting process about inappropriate orÃ unusual activity relating to the processing of journal entries and other adjustments2. Reviewing accounting estimates for biases that could result in material misstatement due tofraud.The assumptions and resulting accounting estimates that management has to make to prepare thefinancial statements affect the underlying accounting techniques and figures. Therefore, a lot ofÃ fraudulent financial reporting is done by intentional false estimations of management. TheauditorÃ ¶s task is to consider retrospectively whether single estimates are supported by auditevidence and whether the ones that underlie the reported financial figures widely diverge and, ifÃ so, investigate whether the assumptions and accounting estimates were intentionally biased inÃ part of management. Thereby, the auditor should test those accounting estimates that are basedon highly sensitive assumptions or are otherwise s ignificantly affected by managementÃ judgements. I f single management estimates were biased, affecting the financial figuresmaterially, the auditor should investigate whether there have been circumstances that led to thisÃ bias and if these circumstances can constitute a risk for financial statement fraud. Also theestimates taken as a whole should then be re-considered by the auditor.3. Evaluating the business rationale for significant unusual transactions.Transactions that are outside the normal course of business for the company or entityinvestigated or that appear to be unusual should be investigated by the auditor . I t should also beevaluated whether there is an underlying rationale behind those transactions or whether they areÃ possibly an indication of fraudulent financial reportingTo understand the underlying rationale for the transactions in question, the auditor shouldinvestigate:Ã ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Whether the form of such transactions is overly complex (e.g. whether it involves multipleentities within a consolidated group or unrelated third parties)Ã ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Whether management has discussed the nature of and accounting for such transactions withthe audit committee or board of directorsÃ ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Whether management is placing more emphasis on the need for a particular accountingtreatment than on the underlying economics of the transactionÃ ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Whether transactions that involve unconsolidated related parties, including special purposeentities, have been properly reviewed and approved by the audit committee or board of directors Ã ®Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¬ Whether the transactions involve previously unidentified related parties or parties that do nothave the substance or the financial strength to support the transaction without assistance from theentity under audit
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Personal Trainings Introduction Question One Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is imperative for human beings, both sportsmen and individuals, in general, to be flexible. For an individual to be termed flexible, he or she should have the ability to move through a certain ROM (range of motion). Stretching is one of the common exercises used by athletes and individual to attain flexibility(Berg, 2012). To reach a given increase in the range of motion, two mechanisms, either stretching or other methods, are utilized. There are two categories of stretching; dynamic stretching and static stretching. Dynamic stretching comprises of organized movements through the active range of motion for a joint. Static stretching is where a joint is moved to the end of its range during the stretch position for a static time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Stretching is confirmed to be one of the exercises that help improve flexibility in athletes and the population, in general. This improvement are classified into three categories; Joint flexibility, hamstring flexibility, and calf flexibility. In this categories, stretching generally improves the range of motion in joints, hamstring is successful at different positions of stretching, and calf stretching improves ankle dorsiflexion(Wuest, 2011). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A general fitness program should have stretching exercise at moderated rates to avoid fatigue. Stretching is done at the beginning of the exercise and at the end of it. This is important for the participants of the program to trigger their muscles for practice and to relax them after the session. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Apart from improving flexibility, stretching is also important for muscle developing. It is scientifically proven that regular stretching exercise and taking enough water leads to muscleÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Stretching is also used for a cooling after a vigorous training session because it decreases soreness and fatigue. It also important because it helps in joint rotations because it triggers the joints lubrication process. Question Two Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Periodization is an organized method of a training period for an individual to achieve important knowledge and skills needed for personal progress(Berg, 2012). The approach comprises of tolerantcycling of a number of training program aspects within specified periods of time.Periodization gives a chance to sequentially expand skills, knowledge, and attitude towards oneÃ¢â¬â¢s development and growth through a training session. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a technique, periodization has several components .that contribute to its success. However, common components include frequency, intensity, duration, and volume. Frequency involves the number of times an exercise is done in a consistent fashion. Intensity component of periodization is the uniqueness among individuals intermsof persistence, abilities, and personalities towards the exercise(Wuest, 2011). This component is the gradual development from basic training to more intense exercises as the body adopts to advanced practices. Duration aspect is the whole time required for one to complete a certain level of training. Lastly, volume is the expanse of practice required for one to undertake during a particular training session. Volume is about avoiding taking too much exercise that may cause fatigue or taking little amounts that may not have an impact on the individual. Examples in which periodization can be utilized include cyclists training, weight lifters practice sessions, and in the process of child growth. This activity is important for everyone because it is the best approach that yield results to a given training. It is also inclusive of other aspects like cognitive practice which render it important across the divide of any population. Question Three Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After doing an analysis of five different articles, one of the common myths discussed include; before doing any exercise one has to do stretches(Rosen, 2014). The articles authors believe that stretching is necessary for muscle development and as an injury prevention exercise. The media supports this fallacy to make it true by arguing that stretching makes the muscles tired by 30%(Muella, 2013). This adverse impact lowers the volume, intense, and frequency of exercise. Stretching is said to create tension which makes the persona training vulnerable for injuries(Yeh, 2013). Therefore, to justify this fallacy, walking and lifting light weights is recommended for individuals preparing for heavy training sessions. Stretching should therefore be done at the end of the training session(Faigenbaum, 2012). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The media should say, that stretching is not a mandatory preliminary exercise before taking a heavy work out(Goudreau, 2012). It should be done at the end of an exercise to make sure that the muscles relax and lessens fatigue. It should also state other methods of warming up and preparing the muscles for a heavy work out. By mentioning these aspects, the media will succeed in making the fallacy correct. Question Four Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Exercise has both benefits and risks among the young generation. Some of the benefits of practice among the youth include; building and sustaining healthy muscles and bones, it moderates the possibility of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes(Milani, 2011). Youth who exercise at regular intervals has the benefit of avoiding obesity problems. Practice is also important among the youth because it decreases anxiety and gives them a good state of mind.Exercise has also proven to have positive impacts on academics performance of the youth as it increases their levels of attentiveness. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Despite the many benefits associated with exercise and the youth, practice also pose risk to the youth. Heavy training can cause stunted growth in the adolescents with less developed muscles. Training tends to consume much of their time and it may impact their academic performance negatively. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Weight training is safe for the youth if it is executed safely and correctly. However, risks exist if the youth do not put it consideration necessary measures for their safety(Milani, 2011). Such risks are mitigated by setting guidelines and tailor made practice sessions for the adolescents. References Berg, K. (2012). Essentials of Research Methods in Health, Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Recreation (Point (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)) . New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers . Faigenbaum, A. (2012). Youth Strength Training: Facts and Fallacies. American Colledge of Sports Medicine, 1. Goudreau, J. (2012). Avery D. Faigenbaum. Forbes Magazine, 1. Milani, M. (2011). Is Weight Training Safe For TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Youth? Total Human Performance Preparing Youth Today, 1. Muella, J. (2013). The Top 6 Fitness Myths and Truths. SparklePeople, 1. Rosen, P. (2014). 8 Health Lies Trainers Tell. FitnessMagazine, 1. Wuest, D. (2011). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York : McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. Yeh, I. (2013). The truth about common fitness myths. Health Newsletter, 1. Retrieved from http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20765578,00.html Source document
Friday, January 10, 2020
It was a tragedy that Christopher McCandless died in Alaska; but he was not wrong in rejecting American society and what it stood for in the modern day. Jon KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Into the Wild, tells the true story of Christopher McCandless and why he left his home and his family and how he managed to survive for so long after he left. The book deals with the people he meant and grew close to, and his impact on their and other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Chris decided to leave all the deceit and lies within his own family. He chose to leave all his material goods behind and use only what he thought he absolutely needed. He left the world he knew as a young, rich man on his way to law school to become a street urchin in the wild. He left Chris McCandless and became Alexander Supertramp. Within his own family, there was a web of lies and deceit that would have made Richard Nixon look good. His father had another family with a ex-wife and children that Chris didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about. One summer, he took his Datsun up to the town in which he grew up. There he found his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-wife and her children and did some math. He figured out that it would have been impossible for his father to be completely loyal to his current wife and his children (Chris and his sister). His father had most certainly continued having relations with his ex-wife after he and ChrisÃ¢â¬â¢s mom had been married. Chris could barley look at his father and was ashamed of him and the rest of the family who knew about the other family and had failed to tell Chris. Chris was right to leave all of that behind, try to move on and be his own person. I believe that once Chris had done some exploring and cooled down quite a bit, he would have gone back to see his family. Chris left all of his money to charity when he left and took little with him to Alaska. He wanted to go through his journey using few supplies and using only what he knew or could gain for himself. He did this because he wanted to escape the material world that his father and mother had created for themselves and that he, up until his departure, had been caught up in himself. I believe that what he did was necessary for him to feel better and for him to be happy in his life. I think it was very brave of Chris to have the courage to do this. Krakuer writes Ã¢â¬Å"He buried his Winchester deer-hunting rifle and a few other possessions that he might one day want to recover. Then, in a gesture that would have done both Thoreau and Tolstoy proud, he arranged all his paper currency in a pile on the sand Ã¢â¬â a pathetic little stack of ones and fives and twenties Ã¢â¬â and put a match to it. Ã¢â¬ (Chapter 4, page 29). Chris burned his money and buried his possessions so he could be free of the material bindings that were weighing him down. He wanted to experience the freedom that Thoreau, Tolstoy, and countless other have felt. Chris was very brave in leaving his material goods behind, and I admire that bravery and his attitude towards the wild. Chris left behind his education and decided to become an outdoorsman. At the time he studying to become a lawyer at law school. He was an extremely intelligent young man and he had a great deal of potential. Wayne Westerberg said Ã¢â¬Å"You could tell right away that Alex was intelligent, Westerberg reflects, draining his third drink. Ã¢â¬ËHe read a lot. Used a lot of big words. I think maybe part of what got him into trouble was that he did too much thinking. Sometimes he tried too hard to make sense of the world, to figure out why people were bad to each other so often. Ã¢â¬ (Chapter 3 pg. 18). He stated that Chris often tried to comprehend people and why they were bad to each other. I think that it was difficult for Chris to be a lawyer because often the attorneys have to be cruel and judgmental towards other people and that was something that Chris had a very hard time doing. He was a kind, idealistic young man who was just plain nice by nature. I think that if he had become a lawyer he would have regretted it and found a way out. Chris had an extremely big heart and that is something that everyone should admire. He wanted to escape from law school and exiting into the wild seemed to fit perfectly. In that way he left behind not only law school, but also all of the other problems and issues that were slowly destroying his character. McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to leave behind the life he knew to become Alexander Supertramp was most certainly worthy of admiration. It takes tremendous courage to do what Chris did and though he did not make it out his journey alive, he will go down in history as a hero to some, and a fool to others. I choose to think of McCandless as a hero, and someone to be applauded. He chose the life of a adventurer over the life of a successful and wealthy lawyer. He should be admired for his choices and by many he is. The people who execrate Chris will always be around, as will the ones who admire him. I admire McCandless for his choices, and I will encourage others to do the same because what he did is certainly worthy of recognition. He sought to be true to himself, an admirable goal for all.